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Opioid Chemistry Stats

Heroin
Morphine
Morphine
Morphine Sulfate
Morphine Hydrochloride
Codeine
Codeine
Codeine Phosphate
Codeine Sulfate

The information listed below uses some terms and abbreviations that may be unfamiliar to you. They are listed in the following table. If you have any questions, feel free to contact us.

Term Description
brand name This is the name that the drug is normally sold under. In many cases, there are any number of brand names and the band name may not refer to the drug itself, but rather a pill or other concoction that contains the drug.
name This is the chemical or generic name of the drug.
formula This is the chemical formula for the drug.
mol wt Molecular weight. This is the number of grams that a mole of the drug weighs.
melts This is the temperature at which the drug melts. Unless otherwise stated, this is under atmospheric pressure.
sol This is the solubility of the drug in whatever liquid is listed--usually water.
LD50 This is the lethal dose (LD) of the drug in whatever animal has been tested. The "50" indicates that this is the amount of the drug that caused half of the animals to die. The values given are mass of the drug per mass of the animal. So an LD50 of 100 mg/kg would mean for 100 mg of the drug for every kg the animal. LD50 is a good indication of how toxic a drug is, but note how much it changes from one species to another. There is a three-fold difference in the LD of heroin for mice versus monkeys.
IV, IM, SC Intravenously, intramuscularly, subcutaneously



Heroin

brand name	Heroin
name		Diacetylmorphine Hydrochloride
formula		C21H23NO5HCl
mol wt		369.42
melts		243-244oC
sol		1 g / 2 g H2O
LD50 mice	22 mg/kg (IV)
LD50 monkeys	 7 mg/kg (IV)


Morphine

formula			C17H19NO3
mol wt			285.34
Fraction of Opium	9% - 14%

Morphine molecule.

Morphine Sulfate

formula		C34H40N2O10S
mol wt		668.77
melts		~200oC
sol		1 g / 15.5 g H2O (25oC)
		1 g /  0.7 g H2O (80oC)


Morphine Hydrochloride

formula		C17H20ClNO3HCl
mol wt		321.80
melts		~200oC
sol		1 g / 17.5 g H2O (25oC)
		1 g /  0.5 g H2O (80oC)
LD50 mice	226-318 mg/kg (IV)


Codeine

formula			C18H21NO3
mol wt			299.37
Fraction of Opium	0.7% - 2.5%
melts			154 - 156oC
sol			1 g / 120 ml H2O (25oC)
			1 g /  60 ml H2O (80oC)
LD50 mice		300 mg/kg (SC)

Codeine molecule.

Codeine Phosphate

formula		C18H24NO7P
mol wt		397.36
melts		154 - 156oC
sol		1 g / 2.3 ml H2O (25oC)
		1 g / 0.5 ml H2O (80oC)

Notes: Codeine in pill form is usually found in this phosphate form.

Codeine Sulfate

formula		C36H44N2O10S
mol wt		696.82
sol		1 g / 30   ml H2O (25oC)
		1 g /  6.5 ml H2O (80oC)

by Dr. H © 2001


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